Kahncept Of the Week (KOW)

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September 28 2015

There's no way around it, time, at least in the swimming world, is our frenemy. It is both reassuring and a rascal. It's constant and fleeting. It's your best friend when you're swimming well and your worst enemy when you're not. The notion of time is everywhere; our entire sport is focused on timed results, each daily practice here at DAM has a starting and ending time, the sets are time based and the clock is ever-present and controlling. But those are all good things. Swimmers with correct clock skills are in control, more relaxed and better pacers. They know what they did, what they're doing and what's coming next. One of the biggest knocks on Master swimmers is that they swim their easy efforts too fast and their fast efforts too slow. If that's true, it's partially because of poor clock management.

Learning how to read the clock, knowing when to push off, and how to prepare for your interval before you get back to the wall, increases personal responsibility and allows for a well organized practice . The less chaos during training, the more focus can be placed on swimming your own speeds... rather than just trying to keep up with others. And, equally important, is that over time you can see your own improvement by comparing your times to yourself instead of to others.

Here are a couple basic reminders... using both the standard sweep clock, and the digital clock.
1 - Leaving on the "top", or "zero". This means the first swimmer in the lane leaves when the clock reaches what would be the 60 second mark, or 12 o'clock, or when the digital clock gets to :00.
2 - Leave "5 seconds apart". The 2nd swimmer in the lane will leave 5 seconds after the person in front of them... so the 5 - 10 - 15 - and so on.
3 - It's standard practice to leave on the number that ends in either 5 or 0... but we still see swimmers who leave at some random time. This makes it more difficult to maintain a good distance behind the person in front, and more difficult to get your actual time of the swim. Stay organized.

During a set, you should not just be thinking about your stroke technique, but also, when you're going to have to leave for your next swim. Do the math while you're swimming and remember to think in units of 60 seconds (base 60), not normal base 10. One helpful but unusual reminder to stay on track is to speak out loud underwater while you're shoving off, the number on which you just left. This solidifies your sendoff in your brain and reduces forgetfulness. As you swim, add the interval to your send-off number so you're expecting a specific number when you look next at the clock.

Now that there are digital pace clocks at the pools, it's even easier to track you splits and thus your yardage. The two are interwoven. If you're swimming a 300 and you get your 100 & 200 splits by looking at the clock just before you turn, you can predict what you'll see at the end of the 12 lengths. If you're not within seconds of the pace, then you've probably miscounted and can self-correct.

Here's the final thought... stay engaged and thinking during practice. Know when YOU are supposed to leave, and don't depend on the person in front of you to know the intervals. The clock serves are your own personal tracker... to tell you when to start, how fast you went on the swim, and when to leave again. Treat the clock as if you're the only one using it, and know your times. Great swimming is more than going back and forth... it's an organized, thoughtful, engaged approach to your training. 

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September 21 2015
DAM Glossary of Terms

Trying to decipher swimming instructions, whether you're hearing them or reading them, can be challenging, especially to newer swimmers. Here is an alphabetical list of the most terms used in our DAM program. If you have any questions, or remember something not listed here, ask Stu or Mary for a more detailed explanation.

Alternate Breathing (Alt)

A breathing pattern used when swimming freestyle. Breathe to one side then take an odd number of strokes and breathe to the other side. This facilitates stroke symmetry by creating balanced motions from left to right. The most current common pattern for pool and open water is a 2-3 cycle, which increases oxygen uptake on the ‘2’ and maintains balance on the ‘3’.


A combination of kicking skills alternating between using a kickboard while on your stomach with kicking on your back without a kickboard in a streamline position.

Build-up (B-U)

Start swimming slowly and gradually increase speed within a single distance. Example set: 6 x 200 free build by 50. For each 200 you would swim the first 50 slowly, the second 50 faster than the first, give a good effort on the third 50 and swim the last 50 fast.

Catch-up (C/U)

A freestyle drill. Stop one arm straight in front of the shoulder, elbow locked, palm down. The first arm cannot start the next stroke until your other arm pulls alongside at shoulder width and parallel parks. Focus on a wide, Early Vertical Forearm (EVF), armpit closure with LVF (Late Vertical Forearm) and wrist hyper- extension ELVP (Even Later Vertical Palm). Recovery above water can be palm out or palm back, but never palm in.

Choice (Ch)

Any of the 4 competitive strokes; Fly, Ba, Br or Fr.

Descending (Desc or ? 1-3)

Start swimming slowly and gradually increase speed through multiple swims. Example set: 6 x 200 free desc. Swim the first 200 at an easy pace. The second 200 should be a few seconds faster. Continue swimming each 200 a little faster than the previous with the last 200 faster than all the previous.

Drill (Dr)

Any effort directed to increase skills by breaking larger components into smaller, manageable tasks. Common drills are: Freestyle CURLS (Catch-up, Right arm, Left arm, Swim), Backstroke DARLS (Double arm, Right arm, Left arm, Swim) and SKPS (Swim, Kick, Pull, Swim).


85-95% perceived effort. One step below 'sprint.' You should push off the wall swimming fast, but unlike sprint you can hold close to this speed for the specified distance. This term is typically used for short to mid-distances.

Hypoxic (Hyp)

A set with a reduced breathing pattern, created not to withhold oxygen but to begin tolerating carbon dioxide build-up.

IM or Individual Medley

An event in swimming that combines all four competitive strokes without extra rest between each stroke - Butterfly, Backstroke, Breaststroke and Freestyle in that order. Example IM's: 100 IM = 25 fly, 25 back, 25 breast, 25 free. 200 IM = 50 fly, 50 back, 50 breast, 50 free. 400 IM = 100 fly, 100 back, 100 breast, 100 free.


A way to build distance while alternating between two different styles of swimming. The most common ways to swim loco is drill/swim; kick/swim and not/free. The basic loco pattern is 25 pace/25 fast, 50 pace/50 fast, 75 pace/75 fast, 100 pace/100 fast - these distances should be swum straight without stopping. When swimming loco to 100 you will swim 500 total yards.

Master's Minute Rest

You decide how much rest you want to take. Take about sixty seconds to catch your breath, clear the fog from your goggles, run to the bathroom, refill your water bottle or swim a 50 recovery.

Negative Split (N/S)

Swim the second half of the distance faster than the first half.


Any stroke that isn’t Free, ie; Fly, Ba or Br.

Postal Pace (PP)

The training interval equal to the pace a swimmer holds in the January One Hour Swim. A DAM swimmer’s minimum aerobic threshold.

Recovery (Rec)

Easy movement after a tough swim. You can walk, kick, swim elementary backstroke or bounce off the bottom as long as you're moving your body and gradually bringing your heart rate back down.


Within a set, the lane leader goes off interval and waits until everyone finishes before starting the next swim.


Your hands and forearms repeat figure 8 movements which slowly propel your entire body through the water. This skill will give you a better 'feel' for the water. The easiest scull is done while lying on your back, hands near your hips, head pointed toward the opposite end of the pool. Once you master this scull, try lying on your stomach with your arms in front of your head - which can be in or out of the water. You can scull with a pull buoy to help your backend stay afloat or add a light flutter kick.


100% perceived effort! Push off the wall swimming as fast as possible and hold this speed as long as possible. You should never finish a sprint feeling like you could have swam faster. We never sprint anything longer than a 100.

3rd Person In

Another method of resting between swims. Instead of leaving on a clock sendoff, wait for the 3rd person in your lane to arrive. That typically insures about 10-15 sec rest.

Tombstone Kick

A drill that makes kicking with a kickboard more challenging. Instead of holding your kickboard parallel on the waterline as you normally would, hold it perpendicular to the water. Half of the kickboard should be under the water and half should stick straight out of the water creating a 'tombstone' appearance. To increase resistance hold the kickboard deeper in the water for less resistance allow more of the kickboard to stick out of the water.

Underwater Recovery

A good freestyle drill in which your arms slide underneath the surface of the water during the recovery phase of the stroke instead of moving through the air to get back in front of your body. When using this drill as a freestyle drill it resembles the dog paddle but your head should remain in the water and turn to the side over your arm when a breath is needed. No part of your arm should break the surface of the water during any phase of your stroke. An extension of this drill is the People Paddle Progression, a DAM good drill. Watch this video to see Mary demonstrate the drill.

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September 14 2015
Happy New Year!

The 2015-2016 DAM swim year begins this month and we're diving right in. Unlike normal calendars, the 12 months in our sport begin in September and end in August. Further, USMS breaks those months into three smaller swim seasons; 25 meters (Sept. - Nov.), 25 yards (Dec. - April) and 50 meters/Open Water (May - Aug.). This schedule and the Grand Prix (which runs from Jan. to Dec.) are the starting points from which Mary and I plan the DAM New Year. This Kahncept is an attempt simply to get everyone on the same page for the upcoming swim year.
The following table highlights the months and dates of many of our future DAM events.

Month Emphasis Competitions Socials/Events
Sep Kicking 3000/6000 ePostal begins, 9/15
'30/30' month
Swimming 101, new member orientation, 9/30
Oct Stroke Review 3000/6000 ePostal
Pentathlon, 10/4
PMS sc meters Champs, 10/9-11, Walnut Creek
Team Store opens for winter gear sale, 10/1-10/14
Nov IM Brute Squad, 11/1-11/15
Grand Prix ends, 11/15
3000/6000 ePostal ends, 11/15
Civic Pool closure, 11/16-29, practices move to Manor.
DAM Board elections, 11/20-12/5
Dec     Annual Mtg, Holiday Party, Awards Nite and Matt Biondi (12/5)
Jan   Time Trials, 1/18 (MLK), Arroyo pool Arroyo Pool closure, 1/25-2/8, practices move to Manor.
Feb Stroke Review Valentines Meet, TBA, San Francisco Team store opens for spring gear sale, 2/1-2/15
Mar Race Pace Prep Cal Masters Meet, TBA, Berkeley
'30/30' month
Apr   PMS sc yards Champs, TBA, Moraga Spring BBQ, 4/30
May Berryessa Prep Open Water season begins Team store opens for summer gear sale, 5/1-5/15
June Stroke Review Berryessa Open Water, 6/4 USA Olympic Swim Trials, 6/26-7/3
July Long Course PMS lc meters Champs, 7/22-24, San Mateo Summer BBQ, 7/16
Aug   DAM lc meters meet, 8/6, Davis
USMS lc meters Champs, 8/17-21, Oregon
Olympic swim events, 8/6-13, Rio de Janeiro.

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August 31 2015

History of Goggles (from swimmingscience.net)

In the 1960’s, Swimming goggles were introduced to competitive swimming and changed the face of the sport. The introduction of these goggles greatly extended the amount of time one could train in the pool by eliminating the painful effects of chlorinated water. In fact, claims have been made that goggles have revolutionized the sport of competitive swimming more than any other advancement in the sport. Ever. Outside of the swimsuit there is no other item as closely connected to our sport.

Writers in the 14th century described Persian pearl divers that used goggles with a polished layer of tortoise shells as a lens. This is considered one of the earliest accounts of the use of swimming goggles. ?

In the 16th century, Venetian coral divers could be found using these same goggles. 

Polynesian skin divers were known for their use of wood or bamboo goggles that would trap air to create a viewing area while submerged. Once introduced to glass, they applied glass lenses to their goggles.

The first competitive swimmer to use goggles would be Thomas Burgess. 

With the help of goggles, Thomas became the second person to swim the English Channel in 1911.  His goggles were more like motorcycle goggles and were not water-tight. Due to his use of the breast stroke, these goggles were used more to help protect his eyes from the salty waves of the English Channel.

In 1916 the first modern day goggle design was patented, but we would not see a goggle that would be deemed competition quality for decades. In 1928 Gertrude Ederle becomes the sixth person, first woman and fastest swimmer to date to swim the English Channel, and the first using front crawl (aka freestyle), using a full face mask of motorcycle goggles sealed by parafin wax.  

Her goggles are now in the Smithsonian

Until David Wilkie competed at the 1970 Commonwealth Games, goggles were considered training equipment like pull buoys, kickboards and fins.  Today it would be hard to even envision the sport without the use of swimming goggles. Modern-day swimmers take goggles for granted and would never imagine swimming a length without them, much less an entire practice or season. Want to hear some fun stories about street lamp halos and milk? Ask a swimmer over 60 years old what they remember.

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August 24 2015

Freestyle Propulsion

Last week Mary and I had an oportunity to try Stand Up Paddleboarding (SUP). With good equipment and better balance, we both enjoyed 15 minutes of fun in the sun. What nearly knocked me over, though, were the insights into and the comparisons between the sports of swimming and paddleing. Mechanically both rely heavily on fixing the blade/hand in a stationary, submerged position while the board/body pass above. Though not exact, swimmers can learn a lot from paddleboard techniques.

Without coaching, beginners often use their paddles incorrectly. They haven't learned that, just as in swimming, pushing forces are greater than pulling forces.

Aligning the blade so that during the underwater path it remains perpindicular while passing under the paddlers center of mass provides the greatest thrust.

SUP'ers who race, lean forward, digging their paddles deep, while exerting backwards pressure. This image shows a paddles path with white lines drawn every three frames as the board passes behind a floating pipe marked in one foot increments.  It definitely appears that the paddle stays still for an extended period of time. It turns out that all experienced paddlers anchor and release the water by maintaining, as long as possible, a backwards facing blade.  Here are paddle paths of four top SUP'ers.  The first three have greater distance per stroke and the fourth has greater tempo.

Just as in swimming freestyle, pointing the palm any direction except backwards is counter-productive. If paddlers had a oar that was hinged at the joint between handle and blade thay could constantly manage the pitch of the blade so that it faced backward longer. Unfortunately, they don't; but we do. We have a wrist!

Here is recent DAM swimmer, Jake Allen, demonstrating how early in his motion he internally flexes his wrist, and then how late in the motion he changes to an external hyper-extension,  all the while maintaining a backwards facing palm. Notice how the angle of attack at the wrist is nearly identical in both positions. If we were to film Jake against a stationary grid, I'm sure we would see that his palm, once engaged and rear-facing, stays in one place in the water as his body moves past.

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August 10 2015

ATTITUDE (part 3) - Take charge of your attitude.

"The longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life.

Attitude, to me, is more important than facts.

It is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than failures, than successes, than what other people think or say or do.

It is more important than appearance, giftedness, or skill.

It will make or break a company ... a church ... a home.

The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day.

We cannot change the inevitable.

The only thing we can do is play on the one string we have, and that is our attitude ... I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me, and 90% how I react to it.

And so it is with you ... we are in charge of our Attitudes."

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August 3 2015

ATTITUDE (part 2)

The Farmer's Donkey: A Fable for Our Time

One day a farmer's donkey fell down into a well. The animal cried piteously for hours as the farmer tried to figure out a way to get him out. Finally he decided it was probably impossible and the animal was old and the well was dry anyway, so it just wasn't worth it to try and retrieve the donkey. So the farmer asked his neighbors to come over and help him cover up the well. They all grabbed shovels and began to shovel dirt into the well.

At first, when the donkey realized what was happening he cried horribly. Then, to everyone's amazement, he quieted down and let out some happy brays. A few shovel loads later, the farmer looked down the well to see what was happening and was astonished at what he saw. With every shovel of dirt that hit his back, the donkey was shaking it off and taking a step up. 

As the farmer's neighbors continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, he continued to shake it off and take a step up. Pretty soon, to everyone's amazement, the donkey stepped up over the edge of the well and trotted off!

Moral: Life is going to shovel dirt on you. The trick to getting out of the well is to shake it off and take a step up

Every adversity can be turned into a stepping stone. 

What happens to you isn't nearly as important as how you react to it.

Author Unknown

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July 27 2015


In the year leading up to the 1988 Olympics, Matt Biondi wrote monthly advice columns for SWIMMING WORLD. One of his favorites reinforced his attitude towards attitude. In reference to the following story, he once said, "Enjoy the journey, enjoy every moment and quit worrying about winning and losing".

Maybe so. Maybe not. We'll see.

A farmer and his son had a beloved stallion who helped the family earn a living. One day, the horse ran away and their neighbors exclaimed, "Your horse ran away, what terrible luck!" The farmer replied, "Maybe so, maybe not. We’ll see."

A few days later, the horse returned home, leading a few wild mares back to the farm as well. The neighbors shouted out, "Your horse has returned, and brought several horses home with him. What great luck!" The farmer replied, "Maybe so, maybe not. We’ll see."

Later that week, the farmer’s son was trying to break one of the mares and she threw him to the ground, breaking his leg. The villagers cried, "Your son broke his leg, what terrible luck!" The farmer replied, "Maybe so, maybe not. We’ll see."

A few weeks later, soldiers from the national army marched through town, recruiting all the able-bodied boys for the army. They did not take the farmer's son, still recovering from his injury. Friends shouted, "Your boy is spared, what tremendous luck!" To which the farmer replied, "Maybe so, maybe not. We’ll see."

The moral of this story, is, of course, that no event, in and of itself, can truly be judged as good or bad, lucky or unlucky, fortunate or unfortunate, but that only time will tell the whole story. Additionally, no one really lives long enough to find out the ‘whole story,’ so it could be considered a great waste of time to judge minor inconveniences as misfortunes or to invest tons of energy into things that look outstanding on the surface, but may not pay off in the end. We can see that it is not the events of our life that make us who we are, but how we manage our attitude towards those events.

The wiser thing, then, is to live life in moderation, keeping as even a temperament as possible, taking all things in stride, whether they originally appear to be ‘good’ or ‘bad.’ Life is much more comfortable and comforting if we merely accept what we’re given and make the best of our life circumstances. Rather than always having to pass judgement on things and declare them as good or bad, it would be more meaningful to just sit back and experience the emotions and events with an open, accepting mind".

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July 20 2015


This week I'm offering three fun swimming videos. (Well, fun for me.) Take a look and see if you notice any new aspects that could be adopted into your personal swim world.

The first is a side-by-side comparison of the Men's 100 Free swum 80 years apart at the Olympic Games in 1932, Los Angeles and 2012, London. The lack of flipturns, goggles and tricep extension follow-through probably contribute most to the 11 second difference in times. The kicks on all the swimmers in both races appear to be equally powerful.

Next is a snippet of Kevin Cordes (Univ of Arizona) who is America's top yards Breaststroker because of his great streamlining and powerful pull and kick. What's remarkable about his achievements in the 200 event is when we compare his 2012 Strokes Per Length (SPL) to his 2013 SPL.

2013 Finals SPL 3/4/4/4/4/5/5/6      35 total strokes     Time 1:48.68
2012 Finals SPL 4/5/5/5/6/6/7/8      46 total strokes.    Time 1:51.97

In 2013, He took 11 fewer strokes during his race and went, 3.29 seconds faster. The biggest difference was his attention to tight streamlining after each kick and before his next pull.

Last, we have Swedish swimmer, Sarah Sjostrom who recently set the Women's 50 fly World Record with no breaths. Watch the slo-motion re-run of her race and notice her hand acceleration and wrist flick at the end of each triceps extension.

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July 13 2015


Our sport, as all competitive sports, has a rule book. It's 200 pages long and looks like this:

Inside are six sections and six appendices, with contents ranging from competitions and facilities at pools, to Open Water and Long Distance, to Bylaws, Codes of Conduct, Amendments, Records and Directories. But of all the sections, the shortest, by far, are the 5 pages of Article 101 that cover the Starts, Strokes, and Relays. It's short because swimming, unlike football, baseball or golf, has rules that are absolute, not situational. Here is the link to the Rule Book, Part 1, Article 101.

If you don't have a few, spare minutes, here's Stu's condensed version. (Note, just like an intersection that doesn't show a No U-Turn sign, if it doesn't say you can't, then it's OK to do it.)


At the beginning of each heat, a series of short whistle blasts direct swimmers to stand behind their assigned block. Next, a long blast indicates swimmers should take their mark on the blocks, at the pool edge or in the water. For backstroke, the first blast means enter the pool, a second long blast means to take your position on the wall. On the command of 'Take your mark", swimmers assume their starting position with at least one foot at the front of the block. For backstroke, both feet must remain fully submerged at the start. Upon assuming the ready position, swimmers remain motionless until the starting signal occurs. If after the signal, the officials determine that someone was moving prior to the start, that person is disqualified AFTER THE RACE IS OVER.


  • Freestyle - A swimmer may swim any style, except on the freestyle leg in an IM or Medley Relay, where the stroke must be different than the Back, Brst or Fly. In 99.99% of races, the chosen stroke is the Australian Crawl. After 15 meters (16.4 yards) some part of the body must remain at the surface. Swimmers must start and finish the race in the same lane, must touch the wall at the end of each length, cannot advance themselves with the bottom or the lane line, and cannot interfere with another swimmer. 
  • Backstroke - Stay on your back at all times, except when approaching the wall for a turn. During the turn, swimmers may roll onto their breast as ONE ARM crosses towards the roll and pulls through the water in a continuous motion. Kicking is allowed during the turn. The 15 meter rules applies here, also. At the finish of the race, swimmers must touch the wall on their backs.
  • Breaststroke - Stay on your breast at all times, especially when the feet leave the wall. Throughout the race, the stroke cycle is one arm stroke and one leg kick in that order. Arm movements must be simultaneous and in the same plane without alternating movements. The elbows cannot go above the water, but the hands may. Except during the pulldowns off the wall, the hands may not go past the hipline. The head must break the surface on each cycle. Anytime after a turn, a single dolphin kick is allowed prior to the first breast kick. The toes must be turned outwards during the push phase of the kick. Leg movements must be simultaneous, non-alternating and in the same plane. At the turn and finish, both hands must touch the wall simultaneously at, above or below the water level.
  • Butterfly - Stay on your breast at all times. Unlimited kicks and one arm pull are allowed underwater before the 15 meter mark. Throughout the race, both arms must be moved simultaneously above and below the surface. All up and down movements of the kick must be simultaneous. The breast kick (one per pull) may be used exclusively or interchangeably with the arm motions on butterfly. The turn and finish on fly is the same as breast. 
  • Individual Medley - The rules for each stroke are described above. If turning within a stroke, then the above turn rules apply. If transitioning from one stroke to the next, then the above finish rules apply.
  • Relays - Four swimmers each swim one- fourth of the prescribed distance. The above stroke rules govern all of the applicable legs of the relay. Swimmers re-entering the pool before all lanes have finished shall have the entire relay disqualified. At the end of the first three legs of the relay, swimmers may remain in the water and hold onto the lane line, as long as they don not interfere with the automatic timing equipment. The team with a swimmer who leaves before the preceding teammate touches the wall shall be disqualified. Mixed relays must be two men and two women.

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July 6 2015

Fountain of Youth

Barring congenital problems, physically fit people tend to live longer lives than those who don't exercise. And now, according to a new study from Norway, older athletes can be much younger, physically, than they are in real life. The study found that the athletes’ fitness age is typically younger by 20 years or more than their chronological age. I cam across this information on vacation last week in an article written by Gretchen Reynolds for the New York Times.  

This concept of calendar age versus biological age was developed by researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim who had taken note of epidemiological data showing that people with above-average cardiovascular fitness generally had longer life spans than people with lower aerobic fitness. So at any given age, fit people were relatively younger than were people who were out of shape.

Using a mobile exercise laboratory, the researchers went out and tested the fitness and health of more than 5,000 Norwegian adult athletes and used the resulting data to create a sophisticated algorithm that could rapidly calculate someone’s aerobic capacity and relative fitness age based on his or her sex, resting heart rate, waist size and exercise routine.

They then set up a simple online calculator that people could use to determine their fitness age.

The effect was similar for both male and female athletes, regardless in how late in life they started exercising. Virtually every athlete, in fact, had a lower fitness age than his or her chronological age. 

Using the online calculator with myself as an example, I ran numerous trials to determine which training variable produced the greatest reduction in my chronological age. The matrix allows for changes based on training frequencies, duration and intensity. By far the single biggest difference in reducing my fitness age was the intensity level of my training. The next most important factor was how often I trained, and lastly, it was the amount of time I trained.

These are the training options offered in the calculations;

  • Frequency - a) less than once per week, b) once per week, c) 2-3 times per week and d) almost every day.                                               
  • Duration - a) less than 30 minutes and b) more than 30 minutes
  • Intensity -  a) easy without breathing hard or sweating, b) little hard breathing or sweating and c) all out!

Here are my results.

Training less than once per week, regardless of duration or intensity only lowered my fitness age from 62 to 60. Just two years.

Training once per week, was slightly better, regardless of duration, as my ages went down according to intensity changes from 59 (easy) to 55 (medium) to 51 on all out efforts, nearly 11 years younger.

Two to three times per week at less than 30 minutes lowered my numbers to 58 easy,54 medium and 48 all out. I'm almost 15 years younger. At durations of over 30 minutes, the numbers improved slightly to 58 easy, 51 medium and 43 all out, nearly 20 years younger.

Training almost every day for less than 30 minutes yielded the same results as 2-3 times per week for more than 30 minutes; 58 - 51 - 43, still 20 years younger.

Finally, by claiming I train almost every day, regardless of duration, my ages decreased to 57 years old at easy levels, 47 years old at medium and 34 youthful at the all out intensity stage. That's an incredible 28 years younger.

The moral of the story is that some exercise is good, more exercise is better and hard exercise is best.

Here are some other good reasons to swim

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